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The cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) family of activators (CREB1, CREM, ATF1) functions in diverse physiological processes, including the control of cellular metabolism, growth-factor-dependent cell survival, and development and plasticity of neurons. A diverse range of signals, including cAMP, calcium, stress and mitogenic stimuli, can activate CREB and promote target gene expression.

This database is dedicated to catogerize CREB target genes in a comprehensive and easy-to-search way. We have used a multi-layered approach to predict, validate and chracterize CREB target genes. For each gene, we try to provide the following information:

  1. CREB binding sites on the promoters

  2. Promoter occupancy by CREB

  3. Gene activation by cAMP in tissues

When using the data, please keep in mind that CREB binding does not equal to activtion by cAMP in all tissues. CREB seems to occupy a large number of promoters in the genome (up to ~5000 in human), and the profiles for CREB promoter occupancy are very similar in different human tissues. However, only a small proportion of CREB occupied genes is induced by cAMP in any cell type, possibly reflecting the requirement of additional regulatory partners that assist in recruitment of the transcriptional apparatus.

For further details, please check our PNAS paper:

Genome-wide analysis of cAMP-response element binding protein occupancy, phosphorylation, and target gene activation in human tissues
Xinmin Zhang, Duncan T. Odom, Seung-Hoi Koo, Michael D. Conkright, Gianluca Canettieri , Jennifer Best, Huaming Chen, Richard Jenner, Elizabeth Herbolsheimer, Elizabeth Jacobsen, Shilpa Kadam, Joseph R. Ecker, Beverly Emerson, John B. Hogenesch, Terry Unterman, Richard A. Young, and Marc Montminy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 22;102(12):4459-64. Epub 2005 Mar 7.